Evaluation of failure analysis on asbestos pipe – in a district water distribution network California. Shows asbestos fibers in hardened cementitious paste.


ASTM C1723: Standard Guide for Examination of Hardened Concrete Using Scanning Electron Microscopy.

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) by ASTM C1723, is an analytical microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. SEM is used to complement other analytical results, such as petrographic analysis. An energy dispersive X-ray, (EDX) unit attached to the SEM is also used to obtain a secondary, semi-quantitative elemental data from an area of interest on the larger photomicrograph of the SEM. It is capable of taking images with magnification on the range of 40X to 5,000X and beyond.

Differentiating between two types of grouts: Non-shrink epoxy grout and Non-shrink cementitious grout

Non Shrink Epoxy Grout 150X

Non-descript surface at 150X of non-shrink epoxy grout.

Picture 2

Shows Non Shrink cementitious grout magnified at 1500X showing crystalline hydrated cementitious materials

Picture 3

Shows Non Shrink cementitious grout at magnification of 5,000X